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Revised descriptions of New Zealand Cenozoic Mollusca from Beu and Maxwell (1990)

New Zealand Cenozoic Mollusca

Struthiolaria (Struthiolaria) papulosa (Martyn, 1784)


(Pl. 47r): GS4068, R22/f6399, Kaimatira Pumice Sand, Kai-Iwi, west of Wanganui, Castlecliffian (GNS)

Beu & Maxwell (1990): Chapter 16; p. 350; pl. 47 r.

Synonymy: Buccinum papulosum Martyn 1784, fig. 54 (valid, ICZN Opin. 479); Buccinum coronarium Lightfoot 1786, p. 160 (nomen nudum); Murex stramineus Gmelin 1791, p. 3542; Struthiolaria nodulosa Lamarck 1816, "Liste des objets représentées sur les planches" p. 7, pl. 431, fig. 1a, b; Struthiolaria nodosa Gray 1835, p. 308; Struthiolaria sulcata Jonas 1839, p. 342; Struthiolaria gigas Sowerby 1842 (in 1842-1887), pl. 5, fig. 17; Struthiolaria tasmani King 1933, p. 340

Type species of Struthiolaria Lamarck, 1816

Classification: Struthiolariidae

Description: Large for family (70-90 mm high, i.e., much larger than P. vermis), with tall, stepped spire, short last whorl without anterior canal, nearly circular aperture with thick, reflected lips, outer lip strongly sinuous; particularly thickly callused at top of aperture. Sutural ramp gently sloping, straight in outline, above an obvious angle that bear low nodules to large, spine-like nodes; a second rounded, peribasal angulation low on last whorl. Sculpture of many low, close spiral cords, variable from fine threads to relatively coarse cords (form tasmani), but coarse and prominent on early spire whorls of almost all specimens; crossed by faint growth lines only. Protoconch small, conical, of 2 smooth whorls.

Comparison: The identity and time ranges of the much less common Pliocene (Waipipian and Mangapanian) forms of Struthiolaria (sensu stricto) is unclear; S. errata (age uncertain, Opoitian-Mangapanian?) is possibly a distinct species (with finer spiral sculpture than S. papulosa). The origin of S. papulosa is uncertain, but S. errata is one possible ancestor. Southern New Zealand shells at present are large, tall, and weakly nodulose (form gigas, common at Stewart Island), and this form occurs fossil in the Kai-Iwi beds (early Castlecliffian) (suggesting temperatures were lower at the time of deposition than they are at Wanganui now), whereas northern shells at present are relatively small, short, and bear large, pointed nodules; there is a complete geographic cline at present between these extreme forms.

Distribution: (Waipipian?-) Nukumaruan-Recent. Recent, New Zealand (types of Buccinum papulosum, Murex stramineus, Struthiolaria nodulosa, S. nodosa, S. sulcata, and S. gigas); upper Struthiolaria bed of two (the lower has only S. frazeri) in Okauawa Stream, Kereru Road, central Hawke's Bay, Nukumaruan (type of S. tasmani). Common throughout New Zealand at present and in shallow-water, soft-bottom facies of Nukumaruan-Haweran age.

Cite this publication as: "A.G. Beu and J.I. Raine (2009). Revised descriptions of New Zealand Cenozoic Mollusca from Beu and Maxwell (1990). GNS Science miscellaneous series no. 27."
© GNS Science, 2009
ISBN 978-0-478-19705-1
ISSN 1177-2441
(Included with a PDF facsimile file copy of New Zealand Geological Survey Paleontological Bulletin 58 in CD version from: Publications Officer, GNS Science, P.O. Box 30368 Lower Hutt, New Zealand)


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